Chiropterophily and ornithophily in Freycinetia (Pandanaceae) in Samoa
Plant Systematics and Evolution
In Samoa field observations experiments and SEM micrographs of hair and feather samples indicate the dioecious liana Freycinetia reineckei to be both chiropterophilous and ornithophilous with the principal pollinators being an endemic flying foxPteropus samoensis and an endemic starlingAplonis atrifuscus. Nutritional analysis of staminate and pistillate inflorescenses indicate qualitative and quantitative differences between the rewards offered by the two sexes. No nectar is presented the principal pollinator rewards being fleshy bracts and pollen. As a result staminate and bisexual inflorescenses sustain higher levels of pollinator damage a factor which may tend to maintain dioecism within the population.