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Filogenia, sistemática e evolução de Adenocalymma (Bignonieae, Bignoniaceae) 

Doctoral dissertation, Universidade de São Paulo

Fonseca, L. H. M. 

2017

Doctoral dissertation, Universidade de São Paulo

The "Adenocalymma-Neojobertia" clade represents one of two main clades of tribe Bignonieae. It includes lianas, shrubs, and treelets that are distributed throughout the Neotropics, and centered in Amazonia and the Atlantic Forest of Brazil. This clade is extremely variable in terms of morphology and geography, which has led to a series of taxonomic challenges in the circumscription of species and genera. The most recent classification of tribe Bignonieae recognizes a broad Adenocalymma (82 species) and a small Neojobertia (three species). Here, we used NGS (complete and nearly-complete plastomes) and Sanger sequencing data (ndhF, rpl32-trnL, pepC) to infer a robust phylogeny of the "Adenocalymma-Neojobertia" clade based on a broad sampling of molecular characters (> 88,137 bp), and taxa (90% of the overall species diversity). Our findings indicate that Adenocalymma is paraphyletic as currently circumscribed, with Neojobertia and Pleonotoma albiflora nested herein. Patterns of morphological evolution were evaluated for the whole clade using comparative methods. Phylogenetic signal and punctuated evolution was tested and ancestral character states inferred for 32 selected characters. Of these, 19 characters have significant phylogenetic signal and four are synapomorphies of internal clades. Articulated petioles and petiolules emerged as a putative synapomorphy of the whole "Adenocalymma-Neojobertia" clade. Among the characters without phylogenetic signal, four morphological traits of ecological significance are particularly relevant: (i) plant habit, (ii) corolla color, (iii) corolla shape, and (iv) corolla cupular trichomes. Plant habit was shown to be highly homoplastic and is thought to be associated with the occupation of new environments. Flower morphology was also highly homoplastic and evolved in a punctuated manner, suggesting that corolla color, corolla shape, and corolla cupular trichomes may have been important drivers of evolution in at least portions of this clade. The molecular phylogeny and the morphological information were then used to subsidize an updated synopsis of Adenocalymma. The new circumscription of the genus proposed here revises species limits and includes all species of Neojobertia and P. albiflora within Adenocalymma. Overall, four new combinations, three new species, and 15 new synonomies are proposed, leading to 74 taxa within Adenocalymma. For each species recognized, we provided taxonomic comments, comparisons between closely related taxa, information on the habitat, distribution, and phenology. In addition, distribution maps, and phenology plots are also shown for all species

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Support

The Liana Ecology Project is supported by Marquette University and funded in part by the National Science Foundation.