Lianas of Mexico
Ibarra-Manríquez G.; Rendón-Sandoval F.J.; Cornejo-Tenorio G.; Carrillo-Reyes P.
Through an exhaustive literature review field exploration and revision of herbaria the presence of 861 native species of lianas in Mexico is documented pertaining to 250 genera and 59 families. A total of 25.9% (n = 224) of the species and three genera are endemic to Mexico. The 15 most diverse families account for 80.1% of the species and 85.7% of endemics. The 18 richest genera comprise 38.1% (n = 328) of the species and approximately 50% of the endemic. Chiapas is the state with the greatest diversity because it includes 65.4% of the total species whereas Oaxaca is the richest state in terms of endemism (49.6%). Regardless of their area the most diverse states are also notable for their endemism. The lianas found in only one state encompassed 16.5 and 26% of the total number of species and endemics respectively. Among the five recognized biomes in Mexico the tropical humid forest and the tropical seasonally dry forest stand out for their number of species (n = 692 80.3%) and number of endemics (n = 134 59.8%) respectively. At the level of vegetation type the tropical deciduous forest ranks first in both attributes. The number of lianas species decreased significantly with altitude. Our results demonstrate the importance of the contribution of lianas to the richness and endemism of Mexican flora and justify the development of initiatives to ensure their long-term conservation.