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Life Forms and Growth Types of Central European Plant Species.

In Ecology of Central European Forests

Leuschner, C., & Ellenberg, H. 

2017

In Ecology of Central European Forests

 23-28

Deciduous broadleaved trees are the most competitive life form in the Central European flora, and are thought to dominate the natural vegetation. Yet trees (or phanerophytes sensu Raunkiaer, see Ellenberg and Mueller-Dombois 1967), only make up a small proportion of the over 4500 species of phanerogams in Central Europe (see Table 2.1). Even shrub species (nanophanerophytes, N) make up less than 5 % of species, although they are common in woodland.

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